Biogas an Introduction

Bio Gas
Biogas is a mixture of colourless and odourless gases. Biogas can be produced through fermentation from any degradable material (Substrate) with the help of different types of tiny microbes. It can be produced in a concealed chamber/ digester in the absence of atmospheric oxygen. Biogas is a mixture of different gases, major portion in biogas being methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). It also contains traces of other gases like hydrogen (H2), Moisture (H2O) , hydrogen sulphide (H2S)etc. Improved digesters used for anaerobic digestion can produce biogas with 65% - 75% methane content. Biogas contains water vapour also. The average quantity of methane and carbon dioxide in cow dung based biogas digesters are in 60:40 ratio.

The biogas can be used for different thermal applications like cooking, lighting, operating engines, generation of electricity and for making auto fuel. The main and simple use of biogas generated from a domestic digester is for cooking purpose in houses . Biogas can be purified and upgraded in accordance with the standards of natural gas. The upgraded / Compressed Bio Gas can be used for running vehicles and other applications including different industrial needs

Biogas Technology
The biogas generation technology is known as Biomethanation. Utilizing Biomethanation technology, all fast decomposing materials can be treated hygienically. The biogas generated through biomethanation can be utilized as a renewable source of fuel for meeting all fuel requirements.

Types of wastes (Substrate) that can be used to produce biogas
All easily/fast degradable materials including cooked / raw food wastes, fruits and vegetable wastes, fish and meat wastes, human excreta, excreta of all domestic and wild animals and birds, organic waste from food processing industries and waste water containing bio waste materials can also be used to produce biogas.

Production of Bio gas
For the generation of Biogas, the whole fermentation process of organic materials takes place in different stages. They are mainly acid formation and methane formation. The activities in the above phases have to go on simultaneously. The biogas generated by this process can be stored in the gas collector. Those who are interested to study more details about biogas and about various biogas plants can join the online course available in the following web sites. or

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